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Cholecystectomy, laparoscopic - general and visceral surgery
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Small skin incision inferior to left lower costal arch near the xiphoid. Introduce the Verres needle through this incision and establish the pneumoperitoneum. Limit maximum pressure to 12 mm Hg.
Optionally establish pneumoperitoneum by introducing the Verres needle through a 1 cm periumbilical skin incision or opt for open insertion of the first trocar and establish the pneumoperitoneum through the trocar.
Bluntly insert the trocar for the laparoscope (10 mm) through a small umbilical incision. Tilt the table to the reverse Trendelenburg position and slightly to the left; this ensures better exposure of Calot’s triangle. Inspect the abdominal cavity. Now insert three additional trocars in the following sequence and under direct vision:
5 mm working trocar (T2) inferior to the xiphoid and right of the midline; 10 mm working trocar (T3) in left medioclavicular line (superior to the umbilicus); 5 mm working trocar (T4) in right anterior axillary line (inferior to the costal arch)
Tip: For better cosmesis of any 10 mm incisions, the umbilical incision may be placed directly in the umbilicus and the left lateral trocar could be reduced to a 5 mm trocar, if a 5 mm laparoscope is used.
Exposing the gallbladder
Dissecting Calot’s triangle
Exposing the cystic duct and cystic artery
Clipping and transecting the cystic artery
Clipping and transecting the cystic duct
Retrograde dissection of the gallbladder
Hemostasis of the gallbladder bed
Retrieving the gallbladder