Aortoiliac TEA (thromboendarterectomy) in bilateral stage IIb peripheral arterial (occlusive) disease (PAD) - Vascular surgery

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  1. Laparotomy


    Perform median laparotomy from xiphoid down to symphysis, carrying the incision to the left of the umbilicus.


    1. Maintain adequate distance from the umbilicus and do not incise the skin tangentially as this runs the risk of wound edge necrosis.

    2. If the incisdion damages the cartilage of the xiphoid, it may trigger heterotopic ossification in the scar. Therefore start the incision somewhat lateral to the xiphoid.

  2. Opening the retroperitoneum and exposing the left renal vein

     Opening the retroperitoneum and exposing the left renal vein

    Open the retroperitoneum, while sparing the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA), somewhat to the right of the palpable aorta and the right iliac axis. After sweeping the small bowel loops to the right, coagulate step by step and in advance any exposed small vessels to reduce unnecessary bleeding. After freeing the duodenojejunal flexure, locate and identify the crossing left renal vein as the upper boundary.

  3. Exenterating the small bowel

    Exenterating the small bowel

    Exenterate the small bowel to the right. For this purpose, tilt the operating table about 30° to the right. Place the bowel in a plastic bag. This helps avoid damage to the serosa, keeps the bowel moist, and results in fewer or no postoperative adhesions. Sweep the transverse colon to the upper abdomen.

  4. Dissecting the infrarenal aorta

    Dissecting the infrarenal aorta

    Do not transect the preaortic fat pad and lymphatic tissue body in midline, but keep to the right! Free the tissue layer from right to left by blunt and sharp dissection. Expose the aorta to the crossing left renal vein.


    1. This dissection technique provokes less bleeding and avoids injury to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA). Moreover, sparing the preaortic nerve tissue in men (hypograstric plexus) may reduce the risk of postoperative sexual dysfunction.

    2. In case of iatrogenic IMA injury, carefully review the preoperative angiogram to ensure intestinal perfusion via the superior mesenteric artery (AMS) and the Riolan anastomosis / marginal artery of Drummond.

    3. Caution! In very rare cases, there is a large-caliber vessel in a retroperitoneal fold anterior to the aorta and posterior to the duodenojejunal flexure, just inferior to the left renal vein. This is the atypical "Williams-Klop" anastomosis, a direct communication between SMA and IMA. This vessel must not be transected under any circumstances, because often it is accompanied by other variants with very weak SMA or IMA, and adequate intestinal perfusion is no longer ensured once this communication is severed.

    4. The more marked the stenosis of the aorta and iliac axis, the more pronounced the retroperitoneal collaterals, giving rise to bleeding during tissue transection. This bleeding should be controlled immediately.

    5. Expose the aorta to the crossing left renal vein because usually there is only segment of the aorta amenable to cross-clamping. This is especially true in high aortic occlusion.

    6. In most cases, it becomes necessary to transect the inferior mesenteric vein for a better view of the renal segment of the aorta. This can be done without risk.

  5. Dissecting and looping the inferior mesenteric artery

    Dissecting and looping the inferior mesenteric artery

    Expose the AMI and loop it with a vessel loop.

Dissecting and looping the left common iliac artery

Free the left iliac artery by blunt and sharp dissection and also loop it with a vessel loop.Tips:1

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